Preface1. Overview of qualitative inquiry and general texts on this topicA School Story of Qualitative InquiryAn Analysis of the StoryQualitative Inquiry ProcessThe Reality about the ProcessOrganization of this BookConclusion2. Assumptions we make in doing qualitative inquirySome Common AssumptionsAn Analysis of AssumptionsCommon Questions about Qualitative InquirySome Additional Beliefs and Assumptions Regarding Human InquiryConclusion3. Keeping a record, writing fieldnotesA StoryAn AnalysisKinds of FieldnotesExampleSome Ideas about Record KeepingMechanics of FieldnotesConclusion4. Relationship building to enhance inquiryAn Article-Based StoryThe ProcessResults and ConclusionAn Analysis of KL's ExperienceConclusion5. Standards and quality in qualitative inquiryA Self-Critique StoryAn AnalysisCredibilityTransferabilityDependabilityConfirmabilityOther CriteriaA ChecklistAudit TrailConclusion6. Focusing the inquiryA School's Superintendent's StoryAn AnalysisConclusion7. Data collectionGathering Through Observations, Interviews and DocumentsAn Assistant Principal's StoryGeneral LessonsObserving LessonsInterviewing LessonsDocument Review LessonsConclusion8. Data interpretationA Graduate Student StoryStory Reading Through Analysis, Synthesis and InterpretationAn AnalysisSpradley's Approach to InterpretationDomain AnalysisConclusion9. Sharing and reportingSharing through Story TellingRevisiting Three StoriesAn Analysis of Three StoriesConclusion10. AppendicesAppendix A.1 - A Sample Study from BYU-Public School PartnershipAppendix A.2 - What Have We Learned?Appendix A.3 - Patterns of ExperienceAppendix B.1 - Allowing Space for Not-Knowing: What My Journal Teaches Me, Part 1Appendix B.2 - Allowing Space for Not-Knowing: What My Journal Teaches Me, Part 2Appendix B.3 - Allowing Space for Not-Knowing: What My Journal Teaches Me, Part 3Appendix B.4 - Allowing Space for Not-Knowing: What My Journal Teaches Me, Part 4Appendix B.5 - Marne's critique of her own studyAppendix C - An Elementary School Example: My Observations of JimmyAppendix D - Reflecting on ReflectionAppendix E - A Study of Educational Change in AlbertaAppendix F - Moving Ahead: A Naturalistic Study of Retention Reversal of Five Elementary School ChildrenAppendix G.1 - An Examination of Teacher ReflectionAppendix G.2 - Themes of ReflectionAppendix H - Spradley's theme synthesis and report writingAppendix I - Index of Topics

Conclusion

References

Cronbach, L. J. and Associates (1980). Toward reform of program evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Georges, R. A. and Jones, M. O. (1980). People studying people — the human element in fieldwork. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.

Guba, E. G. and Lincoln, Y. S. (1989). Fourth generation evaluation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Nagel, C. V., Siudzinski, R., Reese, E. J., and Reese, M. (1985). Megateaching and learning: neuro linguistic programming applied to education, Volume I. Indian Rock Beach, FL: Southern Institute Press.

Peshkin, A. (1985). Virtuous subjectivity: in the participant-observer’s eyes. In D.Berg & K.Smith (Eds.), Exploring clinical methods for social research. Beverly Hills: Sage. pp.267-281.

Robbins, Anthony (1991). Awaken the giant within. New York: Summit.

Seith, M. L. (1980). Solving for some unknowns in the personal equation. Unpublished manuscript available from Williams at BYU.

Williams, D. D. (1981). Understanding the work of naturalistic researchers, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.

Questions for Consideration

  1. What is rapport and how can you develop it?
  2. Why do you have to be concerned about field relations throughout the study and not just at the beginning? So what? Why make such a big deal about relationships at all?
  3. How do you decide how much to participate and how much to observe?
  4. What do you think about using your subjectivity and feelings rather than pretending you can stamp it out or simply feel victimized by it? How are you dealing with your subjectivity as a practitioner? As an inquirer?
  5. What do you think about the idea of researcher as instrument- your eyes, ears, thoughts, interests, etc. as the filters through which all data are gathered and processed. What are the implications for the quality of data you collect? What filters do you think you have?
  6. What differences do you see between yourself as an insider inquirer in your practitioner setting and how you would perform as an inquirer in a setting in which you were an outsider (such as an unusual culture in another part of the world)?
  7. What similarities do you see between yourself as an insider inquirer in your practitioner setting and how you would perform as an inquirer in a setting in which you were an outsider (such as an unusual culture in another part of the world)?
  8. What relationships do you see between the relation-building activities discussed in this chapter and the other activities described in the qualitative inquiry process?
  9. Why is development of the inquirer role better described as a negotiation than as an inquirer decision?

Suggested Activities

  1. Write in your field notes (audit trail section might be a good place) a description at this point in your study of your existing relationships with specific people in your inquiry setting. Address the following:
    • How conducive or limiting are each of these relationships to your learning and inquiry?
    • How protective are people around you of what they are about?
    • How isolated are you and the others there?
    • What are you doing to create a community of trust and sharing?
    • What roles have you already negotiated or assumed?
    • What other roles are possible and what would be the implications for your inquiry and for your educating responsibilities of taking on those roles?
    • What will you need to do in terms of developing relationships and roles to really get at the inquiry issues that are developing for you in this project?
  2. What questions did this chapter raise for you?